The Viking bow was used during hunting and in battle. Archers opened fired on the enemy before they had closed the distance. Bows were also used on ships to clear the opposing deck of enemies before it was boarded and taken.
Bows were made from the wood of a yew, ash, or elm. Typically, they were 1.6 to 2 meters in length. Arrow heads were made in a variety of shapes and sizes and were usually 10 to 15 cm long. Arrowheads had a tang which was driven into a hole in the shaft which was secured with cordage and pitch. Shafts were probably 70 to 80 cm long, and around 10 mm in diameter. They were made out of hardwood, in order to hold the tang.
The estimated draw weight of a Viking bow is 40 to 45 kgf, and the effective range was about 200 meters. The Vikings used the longbow and probably the recurve bow too.
Source: Hurstwic: Viking Bow and Arrow
The bow has strong advantages. It has a hit throw of 1D+3 giving a hit point range of 3 to 7. The weapon has a range of 200 meters and automatically gives a wound when it hits. The bow has a chance to break after scoring the maximum number of hit points, this chance is only 15% on the D20. The bow is used with both hands and can only be used at long range (L), not in close (C), melee (M) or pole (P) distance.